In many countries, there are two main types of labs that process the majority of medical specimens. Hospital laboratories are attached to a hospital, and perform tests on patients.
Private (or community) laboratories receive samples from general practitioners, insurance companies, clinical research sites and other health clinics for analysis.
These can also be called reference laboratories where more unusual and obscure tests are performed. For extremely specialised tests, samples may go to a research laboratory. A lot of samples are sent between different labs for uncommon tests. It is more cost effective if a particular laboratory specializes in a rare test, receiving specimens (and money) from other labs, while sending away tests it cannot do.
In many countries there are mainly three types of Medical Laboratories as per the types of investigations carried out.
1. Clinical Pathology
2. Clinical Microbiology
3. Clinical Biochemistry
Its laboratory need Microbiological analysis for infectious diseases that may be found in blood. Pathology to observe Blood grouping, Haematology & cross matching reactions. It also involves PRO department for the communication & contact for blood donations etc..